May 29, 2010 Volume 375 Number 9729 Pages 1845 – 1938
The HIV-associated tuberculosis epidemic—when will we act?
Anthony D Harries, Rony Zachariah, Elizabeth L Corbett, Stephen D Lawn, Ezio T Santos-Filho, Rhehab Chimzizi, Mark Harrington, Dermot Maher, Brian G Williams, Kevin M De Cock
Despite policies, strategies, and guidelines, the epidemic of HIV-associated tuberculosis continues to rage, particularly in southern Africa. We focus our attention on the regions with the greatest burden of disease, especially sub-Saharan Africa, and concentrate on prevention of tuberculosis in people with HIV infection, a challenge that has been greatly neglected. We argue for a much more aggressive approach to early diagnosis and treatment of HIV infection in affected communities, and propose urgent assessment of frequent testing for HIV and early start of antiretroviral treatment (ART).